Falsifiability Wikipedia

Falsifiability - Wikipedia.

Falsifiability is a standard of evaluation of scientific theories and hypotheses that was introduced by the philosopher of science Karl Popper in his book The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934). He proposed it as the cornerstone of a solution to both the problem of induction and the problem of demarcation.A theory or hypothesis is falsifiable (or refutable) if it can be logically ....


Scientific theory - Wikipedia.

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world and universe that has been repeatedly tested and corroborated in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocols of observation, measurement, and evaluation of results.Where possible, theories are tested under controlled conditions in an experiment. In circumstances not amenable to ....


Astrology and science - Wikipedia.

Astrology provides the quintessential example of a pseudoscience since it has been tested repeatedly and failed all the tests.: 62 Falsifiability. Science and non-science are often distinguished by the criterion of falsifiability.The criterion was first proposed by philosopher of science Karl Popper.To Popper, science does not rely on induction; instead, scientific ....


Demarcation problem - Wikipedia.

In philosophy of science and epistemology, the demarcation problem is the question of how to distinguish between science and non-science. It examines the boundaries between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs. The debate continues after over two millennia of dialogue among philosophers of science and ....


Verisimilitude - Wikipedia.

In philosophy, verisimilitude (or truthlikeness) is the notion that some propositions are closer to being true than other propositions. The problem of verisimilitude is the problem of articulating what it takes for one false theory to be closer to the truth than another false theory.. This problem was central to the philosophy of Karl Popper, largely because Popper was among the first to ....


Russell's teapot - Wikipedia.

Russell's teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making empirically unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others.. Russell specifically applied his analogy in the context of religion. He wrote that if he were to assert, without offering proof, that ....


Fanaticism - Wikipedia.

Definitions. Philosopher George Santayana defines fanaticism as "redoubling your effort when you have forgotten your aim". The fanatic displays very strict standards and little tolerance for contrary ideas or opinions. Tonu Lehtsaar has defined the term fanaticism as the pursuit or defence of something in an extreme and passionate way that goes beyond normality..


Solipsism - Wikipedia.

Solipsism (/ ' s ? l I p s I z ?m / (); from Latin solus 'alone', and ipse 'self') is the philosophical idea that only one's mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind..


Falsifiability - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Falsifiability is a concept from philosophy of science. It refers to whether a particular theory can be proved wrong. There are different ways in which it can be done. The easiest way to do it is to find an example where the theory should apply, but fails. As an example: Swans are birds related to ducks and geese..


The Ghost Club - Wikipedia.

History 1862 establishment. The club has its roots in Cambridge in 1855, where fellows at Trinity College began to discuss ghosts and psychic phenomena. Launched officially in London in 1862, it counted Charles Dickens among its members. One of the club's earliest investigations was of the Davenport brothers and their "spirit cabinet" hoax, the club challenging the Davenports' ....


Positivist school (criminology) - Wikipedia.

The Positivist School was founded by Cesare Lombroso and led by two others: Enrico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo. In criminology, it has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behavior.Its method was developed by observing the characteristics of criminals to observe what may be the root cause of their behavior or actions..


Not even wrong - Wikipedia.

"Not even wrong" is a phrase often used to describe pseudoscience or bad science. It describes an argument or explanation that purports to be scientific but uses faulty reasoning or speculative premises, which can be neither affirmed nor denied and thus cannot be discussed rigorously and scientifically.. For a meaningful discussion on whether a certain statement is true or false, the ....


Hitchens's razor - Wikipedia.

Hitchens's razor is an epistemological razor (a general rule for rejecting certain knowledge claims) that states "what can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence." The razor was created by and named after author and journalist Christopher Hitchens (1949-2011). It implies that the burden of proof regarding the truthfulness of a claim lies with ....


List of astrological traditions, types, and systems - Wikipedia.

Most human civilizations - India, China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Maya, and Inca, among others - based their culture on complex systems of astrology, which provided a link between the cosmos with the conditions and events on earth. For these, the astrological practice was not mere divination because it also served as the foundation for their spiritual culture and knowledge ....


György Lukács - Wikipedia.

Gyorgy Lukacs (born Gyorgy Bernat Lowinger; Hungarian: szegedi Lukacs Gyorgy Bernat; German: Georg Bernard Baron Lukacs von Szegedin; 13 April 1885 - 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, literary historian, critic, and aesthetician. He was one of the founders of Western Marxism, an interpretive tradition that departed from the Marxist ....


Self-deception - Wikipedia.

Self-deception is a process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance, significance, or importance of opposing evidence and logical argument.Self-deception involves convincing oneself of a truth (or lack of truth) so that one does not reveal any self-knowledge of the deception.


Contextualism - Wikipedia.

Contextualism, also known as epistemic contextualism, is a family of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs.Proponents of contextualism argue that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context. Contextualist views hold that philosophically ....


Thomas Kuhn - Wikipedia.

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (/ k u: n /; July 18, 1922 - June 17, 1996) was an American philosopher of science whose 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.. Kuhn made several claims concerning the progress of scientific knowledge: ....


The Amityville Horror - Wikipedia.

The Amityville Horror is a book by American author Jay Anson, published in September 1977.It is also the basis of a series of films released from 1979 onward. The book is based on the claims of paranormal experiences by the Lutz family, but has led to ....


Subconscious - Wikipedia.

Scholarly use of the term. The word subconscious represents an anglicized version of the French subconscient as coined in 1889 by the psychologist Pierre Janet (1859-1947), in his doctorate of letters thesis, De l'Automatisme Psychologique. Janet argued that underneath the layers of critical-thought functions of the conscious mind lay a powerful awareness that he ....


Objectivity (science) - Wikipedia.

Objectivity in science is an attempt to uncover truths about the natural world by eliminating personal biases, emotions, and false beliefs. It is often linked to observation as part of the scientific method.It is thus intimately related to the aim of testability and reproducibility.To be considered objective, the results of measurement must be communicated from person to ....


Cogito — Wikipédia.

Le mot cogito peut renvoyer a : . definition : mouvement reflexif dans lequel le sujet se reconnait comme conscient. Cogito ergo sum (<< Je pense, donc je suis >>), celebre phrase de Rene Descartes ;; Cogito, un jeu de scripts cree par Petr Baudis qui se base sur Git ;; Cogito, un maquis a Abidjan en Cote d'Ivoire ;; Cogito, une entreprise europeenne de soutien scolaire ....


Philosophy of space and time - Wikipedia.

Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a central aspect of early analytic philosophy.The subject focuses on a ....