Logical Positivism Wikipedia

Logical positivism - Wikipedia.

Logical positivism, later called logical empiricism, and both of which together are also known as neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was the verification principle (also known as the verifiability criterion of meaning). This theory of knowledge asserted that only statements verifiable through direct observation or logical proof are meaningful in ....


Positivism - Wikipedia.

Positivism is an empiricist philosophical theory that holds that all genuine knowledge is either true by definition or positive--meaning a posteriori facts derived by reason and logic from sensory experience. Other ways of knowing, such as theology, metaphysics, intuition, or introspection are rejected or considered meaningless.. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent ....


Argument - Wikipedia.

An argument is a statement or group of statements called premises intended to determine the degree of truth or acceptability of another statement called conclusion. Arguments can be studied from three main perspectives: the logical, the dialectical and the rhetorical perspective.. In logic, an argument is usually expressed not in natural language but in a symbolic formal language, ....


Metaphysics - Wikipedia.

Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between potentiality and actuality..


Philosophical realism - Wikipedia.

Philosophical realism is usually not treated as a position of its own but as a stance towards other subject matters. Realism about a certain kind of thing (like numbers or morality) is the thesis that this kind of thing has mind-independent existence, i.e. that it is not just a mere appearance in the eye of the beholder. This includes a number of positions within epistemology and metaphysics ....


Positivist school (criminology) - Wikipedia.

The Positivist School was founded by Cesare Lombroso and led by two others: Enrico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo. In criminology, it has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behavior.Its method was developed by observing the characteristics of criminals to observe what may be the root cause of their behavior or actions..


Legal positivism - Wikipedia.

Legal positivism (as understood in the anglosphere) is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence developed largely by legal philosophers during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin.While Bentham and Austin developed legal positivist theory, empiricism provided the theoretical basis for such developments to occur. The most ....


Postpositivism - Wikipedia.

Postpositivism or postempiricism is a metatheoretical stance that critiques and amends positivism and has impacted theories and practices across philosophy, social sciences, and various models of scientific inquiry.While positivists emphasize independence between the researcher and the researched person (or object), postpositivists argue that theories, ....


Omnipotence paradox - Wikipedia.

The omnipotence paradox is a family of paradoxes that arise with some understandings of the term omnipotent.The paradox arises, for example, if one assumes that an omnipotent being has no limits and is capable of realizing any outcome, even a logically contradictory one such as creating a square circle. Atheological arguments based on the omnipotence paradox are ....


Hans Reichenbach - Wikipedia.

Hans Reichenbach (September 26, 1891 - April 9, 1953) was a leading philosopher of science, educator, and proponent of logical empiricism.He was influential in the areas of science, education, and of logical empiricism.He founded the Gesellschaft fur empirische Philosophie (Society for Empirical Philosophy) in Berlin in 1928, also known as the "Berlin Circle"..


Frankenstein - Wikipedia.

Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is an 1818 novel written by English author Mary Shelley. Frankenstein tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment. Shelley started writing the story when she was 18, and the first edition was published anonymously in London on 1 January 1818, when ....


Social research - Wikipedia.

Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan. Social research methodologies can be classified as quantitative and qualitative.. Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid ....


Philosophy of space and time - Wikipedia.

Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a central aspect of early analytic philosophy.The subject focuses on a number of basic issues, ....


Absurdism - Wikipedia.

Absurdism is the philosophical theory that existence in general is absurd. This implies that the world lacks meaning or a higher purpose and is not fully intelligible by reason.The term "absurd" also has a more specific sense in the context of absurdism: it refers to a conflict or a discrepancy between two things but there are several disagreements about their exact nature..


Two Dogmas of Empiricism - Wikipedia.

"Two Dogmas of Empiricism" is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951. According to University of Sydney professor of philosophy Peter Godfrey-Smith, this "paper [is] sometimes regarded as the most important in all of twentieth-century philosophy". The paper is an attack on two central aspects of the logical positivists' philosophy: ....


Historicism - Wikipedia.

Historicism is an approach to explaining the existence of phenomena, especially social and cultural practices (including ideas and beliefs), by studying their history, that is, by studying the process by which they came about.The term is widely used in philosophy, anthropology, and sociology.. This historical approach to explanation differs from and complements the ....


Russell's teapot - Wikipedia.

Russell's teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making empirically unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others.. Russell specifically applied his analogy in the context of religion. He wrote that if he were to assert, without offering proof, that ....


Reason - Wikipedia.

Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. Reason is sometimes referred ....


Fatalism - Wikipedia.

Logical fatalism and the argument from bivalence. The main argument for logical fatalism goes back to antiquity. This is an argument that depends not on causation or physical circumstances but rather is based on presumed logical truths. There are numerous versions of this argument, including those by Aristotle and Richard Taylor..


Henry Corbin - Wikipedia.

Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 - 7 October 1978) was a French philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies at the Ecole pratique des hautes etudes in Paris, France.. Corbin was born in Paris in April 1903. Although he was Protestant by birth, he was educated in the Catholic tradition and at the age of 19 received a certificate in Scholastic philosophy from the ....


Pascal's wager - Wikipedia.

Pascal's wager is a philosophical argument presented by the seventeenth-century French mathematician, philosopher, physicist and theologian Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). It posits that human beings wager with their lives that God either exists or does not.. Pascal argues that a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not ....