Metaphysics Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

Metaphysics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Sep 10, 2007 . 1. The Word 'Metaphysics' and the Concept of Metaphysics. The word 'metaphysics' is notoriously hard to define. Twentieth-century coinages like 'meta-language' and 'metaphilosophy' encourage the impression that metaphysics is a study that somehow "goes beyond" physics, a study devoted to matters that transcend the mundane concerns of Newton ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/metaphysics/.

Aristotle’s Metaphysics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Oct 08, 2000 . As we noted above, metaphysics (or, first philosophy) is the science which studies being qua being. In this respect it is unlike the specialized or departmental sciences, which study only part of being (only some of the things that exist) or study beings only in a specialized way (e.g., only in so far as they are changeable, rather than in so ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-metaphysics/.

Virtue Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Jul 18, 2003 . Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism)..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/.

Thought Experiments (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Dec 28, 1996 . Often a real experiment that is meant to be the analogue of a thought experiment is impossible to be carried out as such due to physical, technological, ethical, or financial limitations (see, e.g., Sorensen 1992, pp. 200-202); but physical unrealizability needn't be a defining condition of thought experiments..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/thought-experiment/.

The Chinese Room Argument (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Mar 19, 2004 . Perlis (1992), Chalmers (1996) and Block (2002) have apparently endorsed versions of a Virtual Mind reply as well, as has Richard Hanley in The Metaphysics of Star Trek (1997). Penrose (2002) is a critic of this strategy, and Stevan Harnad scornfully dismisses such heroic resorts to metaphysics..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/.

Feminist Perspectives on Objectification (Stanford Encyclopedia ….

Mar 10, 2010 . Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory. It can be roughly defined as the seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object.In this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-objectification/.

Baruch Spinoza (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Jun 29, 2001 . Despite the great deal of metaphysics, physics, anthropology and psychology that take up Parts One through Three, Spinoza took the crucial message of the work to be ethical in nature. It consists in showing that our happiness and well-being lie not in a life enslaved to the passions and to the transitory goods we ordinarily pursue, nor in the ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spinoza/.

Turing Machines (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Where current definitions of Turing machines usually have only one type of symbols (usually just 0 and 1; it was proven by Shannon that any Turing machine can be reduced to a binary Turing machine (Shannon 1956)) Turing, in his original definition of so-called computing machines, used two kinds of symbols: the figures which consist entirely of 0s and 1s and the so-called symbols ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-machine/.

Laws of Nature (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Apr 29, 2003 . One last aspect of the systems view that is appealing to many (though not all) is that it is in keeping with broadly Humean constraints on a sensible metaphysics. There is no overt appeal to closely related modal concepts (e.g., the counterfactual conditional, causation, dispositions) and no overt appeal to modality-supplying entities (e.g ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/laws-of-nature/.

Decision Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Dec 16, 2015 . 1. What are preferences over prospects?. The two central concepts in decision theory are preferences and prospects (or equivalently, options).Roughly speaking, when we (in this entry) say that an agent "prefers" the "option" \(A\) over \(B\) we mean that the agent takes \(A\) to be more desirable or choice-worthy than \(B\)..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/decision-theory/.

Donald Davidson (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

May 29, 1996 . This commitment is spelt out explicitly in 'The Method of Truth in Metaphysics' (1977) and it provides a further point of connection between Davidson's work in the philosophy of action, event and mind and his work on questions of meaning and language. ... From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, J. Fieser (ed.), ... The Stanford ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/davidson/.

John Locke (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Sep 02, 2001 . John Locke (b. 1632, d. 1704) was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke's monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) is one of the first great defenses of modern empiricism and concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide spectrum of topics. It thus tells us in some ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/.

Original Position (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Feb 27, 1996 . The original position is a central feature of John Rawls's social contract account of justice, "justice as fairness," set forth in A Theory of Justice (TJ). The original position is designed to be a fair and impartial point of view that is to be adopted in our reasoning about fundamental principles of justice..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/original-position/.

Republicanism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Jun 19, 2006 . In political theory and philosophy, the term 'republicanism' is generally used in two different, but closely related, senses. In the first sense, republicanism refers to a loose tradition or family of writers in the history of western political thought, including especially: Machiavelli and his fifteenth-century Italian predecessors; the English republicans Milton, Harrington, Sidney, ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism/.

Social Institutions (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Jan 04, 2007 . Another source is the recognition that a good deal of normative work on social justice, political philosophy and the like presupposes an understanding of social institutions. For instance, philosophers, such as John Rawls (1972), have developed elaborate normative theories concerning the principles of justice that ought to govern social ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/social-institutions/.

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (Stanford Encyclopedia ….

Oct 22, 2001 . Schelling's own attempt at explaining the world's ontological and historical facticity will lead him to a 'philosophical theology' which traces the development of mythology and then of Christian revelation in his Philosophy of Mythology and Philosophy of Revelation, which, like all his substantial works after 1811, are not published in ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/schelling/.

Descartes’ Theory of Ideas (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Mar 14, 2007 . Ideas are among the most important items in Descartes' philosophy. They serve to unify his ontology and epistemology. As he says in a letter to Guillaume Gibieuf (1583-1650), dated 19 January 1642, "I am certain that I can have no knowledge of what is outside me except by means of the ideas I have within me." [] Descartes never published anything that specifically ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-ideas/.

Nietzsche’s Moral and Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia ….

Aug 26, 2004 . 1. The Critique of Morality 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is not a critic of all "morality." He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a "higher morality" which would inform the lives of "higher men" (Schacht 1983: 466-469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word -- Moral, sometimes Moralitat -- for both what he ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche-moral-political/.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Wikipedia.

Online encyclopedia of Philosophy: Owner: The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford ... plato.stanford.edu: Launched: 1995; 27 years ago () ISSN: 1095-5054: OCLC number: 643092515 : The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanford_Encyclopedia_of_Philosophy.

Mill’s Moral and Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Oct 09, 2007 . John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was the most famous and influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was one of the last systematic philosophers, making significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill-moral-political/.

Ontological Arguments (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Feb 08, 1996 . Ontological arguments are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world--e.g., from reason alone..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/.

John Locke - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

The Influence of John Locke's Works. Hans Aarsleff remarks that Locke "is the most influential philosopher of modern times". He notes that besides initiating the vigorous tradition known as British empiricism, Locke's influence reached far beyond the limits of the traditional discipline of philosophy: "His influence in the history of thought, on the way we think about ourselves and ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/influence.html.

Mental Representation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Mar 30, 2000 . The notion of a "mental representation" is, arguably, in the first instance a theoretical construct of cognitive science. As such, it is a basic concept of the Computational Theory of Mind, according to which cognitive states and processes are constituted by the occurrence, transformation and storage (in the mind/brain) of information-bearing structures ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mental-representation/.