Ontology Wikipedia

Ontology - Wikipedia.

Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality.It includes the questions of how entities are grouped into basic categories and which of these entities exist on the most fundamental level. Ontology is sometimes referred to as the science of being and belongs to the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics..


Ontology (information science) - Wikipedia.

In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations between the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains of discourse.More simply, an ontology is a way of showing the properties of a subject area and how they are related, by defining a set of ....


Web Ontology Language - Wikipedia.

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies.Ontologies are a formal way to describe taxonomies and classification networks, essentially defining the structure of knowledge for various domains: the nouns representing classes of objects and the verbs representing relations between the objects..


Gene Ontology - Wikipedia.

The Gene Ontology (GO) is a major bioinformatics initiative to unify the representation of gene and gene product attributes across all species. More specifically, the project aims to: 1) maintain and develop its controlled vocabulary of gene and gene product attributes; 2) annotate genes and gene products, and assimilate and disseminate annotation data; and 3) provide tools for easy ....


Suggested Upper Merged Ontology - Wikipedia.

The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) is an upper ontology intended as a foundation ontology for a variety of computer information processing systems. SUMO defines a hierarchy of classes and related rules and relationships. These are expressed in a version of the language SUO-KIF which has a LISP-like syntax.A mapping from WordNet synsets to SUMO has been ....


Multiverse - Wikipedia.

History of the concept. Early recorded examples of the idea of infinite worlds existed in the philosophy of Ancient Greek Atomism, which proposed that infinite parallel worlds arose from the collision of atoms.In the third century BCE, the philosopher Chrysippus suggested that the world eternally expired and regenerated, effectively suggesting the existence of multiple universes ....


Magical thinking - Wikipedia.

Magical thinking, or superstitious thinking, is the belief that unrelated events are causally connected despite the absence of any plausible causal link between them, particularly as a result of supernatural effects. Examples include the idea that personal thoughts can influence the external world without acting on them, or that objects must be causally connected if they ....


Ontology of Quranic Concepts.

The Quranic Ontology uses knowledge representation to define the key concepts in the Quran, and shows the relationships between these concepts using predicate logic. The fundamental concepts in the ontology are based on the knowledge contained in traditional sources of Quranic analysis, including the hadith of the prophet muhammad, and the tafsir (Quranic exegesis) of ....


Military–industrial complex - Wikipedia.

Attempts to conceptualize something similar to a modern "military-industrial complex" existed before Eisenhower's address. Ledbetter finds the precise term used in 1947 in close to its later meaning in an article in Foreign Affairs by Winfield W. Riefler. In 1956, sociologist C. Wright Mills had claimed in his book The Power Elite that a class of military, business, and political leaders ....


Actor–network theory - Wikipedia.

Actor-network theory (ANT) is a theoretical and methodological approach to social theory where everything in the social and natural worlds exists in constantly shifting networks of relationships. It posits that nothing exists outside those relationships. All the factors involved in a social situation are on the same level, and thus there are no external social forces beyond what and ....


OWL Web Ontology Language Reference - W3.

Feb 10, 2004 . The Web Ontology Language OWL is a semantic markup language for publishing and sharing ontologies on the World Wide Web. OWL is developed as a vocabulary extension of RDF (the Resource Description Framework) and is derived from the DAML+OIL Web Ontology Language. This document contains a structured informal description of the full set of OWL ....


Advaita Vedanta - Wikipedia.

Advaita Vedanta posits a substance ontology, an ontology which holds that underlying the change and impermanence of empirical reality is an unchanging and permanent absolute reality, like an eternal substance it calls Atman-Brahman..


Decision support system - Wikipedia.

A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations and planning levels of an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance--i.e. ....


Topic map - Wikipedia.

Ontology and merging. Topics, associations, and occurrences can all be typed, where the types must be defined by the one or more creators of the topic map(s). The definitions of allowed types is known as the ontology of the topic map. Topic maps explicitly support the concept of merging of identity between multiple topics or topic maps..


Ontologia - Wikipedia.

Capisaldi dell'ontologia parmenidea I capisaldi dell'ontologia parmenidea, che resteranno validi all'incirca fino a Hegel, erano essenzialmente: . il principio di non contraddizione, che sara poi approfondito e reso esplicito da Aristotele, in base al quale la negazione di una verita non puo essere vera a sua volta;; la dimostrazione per assurdo, fatta propria in particolare dall'allievo ....


E-Prime - Wikipedia.

E-Prime (short for English-Prime or English Prime, sometimes denoted E or E?) is a version of the English language that excludes all forms of the verb to be, including all conjugations, contractions and archaic forms.. Some scholars advocate using E-Prime as a device to clarify thinking and strengthen writing. A number of other scholars have criticized E-Prime's utility..


Web 2.0 - Wikipedia.

Web 1.0. Web 1.0 is a retronym referring to the first stage of the World Wide Web's evolution, from roughly 1991 to 2004. According to Graham Cormode and Balachander Krishnamurthy, "content creators were few in Web 1.0 with the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content". Personal web pages were common, consisting mainly of static pages hosted on ISP ....


XHTML - Wikipedia.

Overview. XHTML 1.0 is "a reformulation of the three HTML 4 document types as applications of XML 1.0". The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) also continues to maintain the HTML 4.01 Recommendation, and the specifications for HTML5 and XHTML5 are being actively developed. In the current XHTML 1.0 Recommendation document, as published and revised to August 2002, ....


Alexander Wendt - Wikipedia.

Alexander Wendt (born 12 June 1958) is an American political scientist who is one of the core social constructivist researchers in the field of international relations, and a key contributor to quantum social science.Wendt and academics such as Nicholas Onuf, Peter J. Katzenstein, Emanuel Adler, Michael Barnett, Kathryn Sikkink, John Ruggie, Martha Finnemore, and others ....


Quantum mind - Wikipedia.

The quantum mind or quantum consciousness is a group of hypotheses proposing that classical mechanics cannot explain consciousness. It posits that quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as entanglement and superposition, may play an important part in the brain's function and could explain consciousness.. The hypotheses assert that consciousness is somehow quantum ....


Cynefin framework - Wikipedia.

The Cynefin framework (/ k ? ' n e v I n / kuh-NEV-in) is a conceptual framework used to aid decision-making. Created in 1999 by Dave Snowden when he worked for IBM Global Services, it has been described as a "sense-making device". Cynefin is a Welsh word for habitat.. Cynefin offers five decision-making contexts or "domains"--clear (known as simple until 2014, then ....


OpenESB - Wikipedia.

OpenESB is a Java-based open-source enterprise service bus.It can be used as a platform for both enterprise application integration and service-oriented architecture. OpenESB allows developers to integrate legacy systems, external and internal partners and new development in business processes..


Ontology - Google Research.

The AudioSet ontology is a collection of sound events organized in a hierarchy. The ontology covers a wide range of everyday sounds, from human and animal sounds, to natural and environmental sounds, to musical and miscellaneous sounds. Each ontology entry contains a description of the sound event, modified from Wikipedia, Wordnet, or written ....


GeoNames Ontology - Geo Semantic Web.

GeoNames Ontology The Semantic Web The Semantic Web is a project that intends to add computer-processable meaning (semantics) to the Word Wide Web. In Feb 2004, The World Wide Web Consortium released the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL) as W3C Recommendations. RDF is used to represent information and to ....


Ontologie – Wikipedia.

Begriff. Der Ausdruck Ontologie scheint in deutscher Sprache zum ersten Mal von Rudolf Goclenius (1547-1628) gebraucht worden zu sein. Ungefahr zur gleichen Zeit ist ein Beleg bei Jacob Lorhard (1561-1609), Professor in St. Gallen, Schweiz. Johann Georg Walch (1693-1775) definiert in seinem Werk Philosophisches Lexicon: ,,Ontologie bedeutet die Lehre vom Ende ....