Philosophical Realism Wikipedia

Philosophical realism - Wikipedia.

Philosophical realism is usually not treated as a position of its own but as a stance towards other subject matters. Realism about a certain kind of thing (like numbers or morality) is the thesis that this kind of thing has mind-independent existence, i.e. that it is not just a mere appearance in the eye of the beholder. This includes a number of positions within epistemology and metaphysics ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_realism.

Platonic realism - Wikipedia.

Platonic realism is the philosophical position that universals or abstract objects exist objectively and outside of human minds. It is named after the Greek philosopher Plato who applied realism to such universals, which he considered ideal forms.This stance is ambiguously also called Platonic idealism but should not be confused with idealism as presented by philosophers such as ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platonic_realism.

Argument - Wikipedia.

An argument is a statement or group of statements called premises intended to determine the degree of truth or acceptability of another statement called conclusion. Arguments can be studied from three main perspectives: the logical, the dialectical and the rhetorical perspective.. In logic, an argument is usually expressed not in natural language but in a symbolic formal language, ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society - Wikipedia.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.In its earliest days, it was a private venture of the Royal Society's secretary. It was established in 1665, making it the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science, and therefore also the world's longest-running scientific journal. It became an official society ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_Transactions_of_the_Royal_Society.

Philosophical fiction - Wikipedia.

Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion of their content to the sort of questions normally addressed in philosophy.These might explore any facet of the human condition, including the function and role of society, the nature and motivation of human acts, the purpose of life, ethics or morals, the role of art in human lives, the role of ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_fiction.

Philosophical zombie - Wikipedia.

A philosophical zombie or p-zombie argument is a thought experiment in philosophy of mind that imagines a hypothetical being that is physically identical to and indistinguishable from a normal person but does not have conscious experience, qualia, or sentience. For example, if a philosophical zombie were poked with a sharp object it would not inwardly feel any pain, yet it ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_zombie.

Philosophical analysis - Wikipedia.

Philosophical analysis is any of various techniques, typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition, in order to "break down" (i.e. analyze) philosophical issues. Arguably the most prominent of these techniques is the analysis of concepts (known as conceptual analysis Method of analysis. While ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_analysis.

Literary realism - Wikipedia.

Literary realism is a literary genre, part of the broader realism in arts, that attempts to represent subject-matter truthfully, avoiding speculative fiction and supernatural elements.It originated with the realist art movement that began with mid-nineteenth-century French literature and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin). Literary realism attempts to represent familiar things as they are..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_realism.

Philosophical razor - Wikipedia.

In philosophy, a razor is a principle or rule of thumb that allows one to eliminate ("shave off") unlikely explanations for a phenomenon, or avoid unnecessary actions.. Razors include: Occam's razor: Simpler explanations are more likely to be correct; avoid unnecessary or improbable assumptions.; Dalton's third rule: Eliminate emotion from human response; so as to mitigate ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_razor.

David Chalmers - Wikipedia.

David John Chalmers (/ ' t? ae l m ?r z /; born 20 April 1966) is an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist specializing in the areas of philosophy of mind and philosophy of language.He is a Professor of Philosophy and Neural Science at New York University, as well as co-director of NYU's Center for Mind, Brain and Consciousness (along with Ned Block)..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Chalmers.

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Alfred North Whitehead OM FRS FBA (15 February 1861 - 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.He is best known as the defining figure of the philosophical school known as process philosophy, which today ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_North_Whitehead.

Category:Philosophical theories - Wikipedia.

Philosophical realism? (1 C, 35 P) Philosophical traditions? (9 C, 21 P) Posthumanism? (1 C, 9 P) Process theory? (9 P) R. Realism? (5 C, 15 P) Reductionism? (2 C, 15 P) S. Metatheory of science? (4 C, 45 P) Social theories? (18 C, 123 P) ... Contact Wikipedia; Mobile view;.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Philosophical_theories.

Contextualism - Wikipedia.

Contextualism, also known as epistemic contextualism, is a family of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs.Proponents of contextualism argue that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context. Contextualist views hold that philosophically ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contextualism.

Platonism - Wikipedia.

Platonism is the philosophy of Plato and philosophical systems closely derived from it, though contemporary platonists do not necessarily accept all of the doctrines of Plato. Platonism had a profound effect on Western thought.Platonism at least affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to exist in a third realm distinct from both the sensible external world and ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platonism.

Søren Kierkegaard - Wikipedia.

Soren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ ' s ?r ? n ' k I?r k ? g ?:r d / SORR-?n KEER-k?-gard, US also /-g ?:r /-gor, Danish: ['soe:?n '???py 'khi?k??k??] (); 5 May 1813 - 11 November 1855) was a Danish theologian, philosopher, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. He wrote critical texts on ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%B8ren_Kierkegaard.

Absurdism - Wikipedia.

Absurdism is the philosophical theory that existence in general is absurd. This implies that the world lacks meaning or a higher purpose and is not fully intelligible by reason.The term "absurd" also has a more specific sense in the context of absurdism: it refers to a conflict or a discrepancy between two things but there are several disagreements about their exact nature..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absurdism.

Euthyphro dilemma - Wikipedia.

American Philosophical Quarterly. 22 (3): 231-239. JSTOR 20014101. Cross, Richard (1999). Duns Scotus. ISBN 978-0195125535. Cudworth, Ralph (1731). A Treatise concerning eternal and immutable morality. London : Printed for James and John Knapton ... Descartes, Rene (1985). John Cottingham; Dugald Murdoch; Robert Stoothoff (eds.)..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthyphro_dilemma.

Thomas Kuhn - Wikipedia.

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (/ k u: n /; July 18, 1922 - June 17, 1996) was an American philosopher of science whose 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.. Kuhn made several claims concerning the progress of scientific knowledge: ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Kuhn.

Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences) - Wikipedia.

Critical realism is a philosophical approach to understanding science initially developed by Roy Bhaskar (1944-2014). It specifically opposes forms of empiricism and positivism by viewing science as concerned with identifying causal mechanisms.In the last decades of the twentieth century it also stood against various forms of postmodernism and poststructuralism by ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_realism_(philosophy_of_the_social_sciences).

Vagueness - Wikipedia.

In linguistics and philosophy, a vague predicate is one which gives rise to borderline cases. For example, the English adjective "tall" is vague since it is not clearly true or false for someone of middling height. By contrast, the word "prime" is not vague since every number is definitively either prime or not.Vagueness is commonly diagnosed by a predicate's ability to give rise to the ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vagueness.

Transcendental idealism - Wikipedia.

Transcendental idealism is a philosophical system founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. Kant's epistemological program is found throughout his Critique of Pure Reason (1781). By transcendental (a term that deserves special clarification) Kant means that his philosophical approach to knowledge transcends mere consideration of sensory evidence and ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendental_idealism.

Allegory of the cave - Wikipedia.

The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, is an allegory presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a-520a) to compare "the effect of education (???????) and the lack of it on our nature".It is written as a dialogue between Plato's brother Glaucon and his mentor Socrates, narrated by the latter.The allegory is presented after the analogy of the sun (508b-509c ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allegory_of_the_Cave.