## Problem Solving Wikipedia

### Future Problem Solving Program International - Wikipedia.

Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI), originally known as Future Problem Solving Program (FPSP), and often abbreviated to FPS, is a non-profit educational program that organizes academic competitions in which students apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills to hypothetical future situations.The program looks at current technological, geopolitical, ....

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### Creative problem-solving - Wikipedia.

Creative problem-solving (CPS) is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem. To qualify, the solution must be novel and reached independently. The creative problem-solving process was originally developed by Alex Osborn and Sid Parnes ....

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### Shortest path problem - Wikipedia.

Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) An algorithm using topological sorting can solve the single-source shortest path problem in time ?(E + V) in arbitrarily-weighted DAGs.. Directed graphs with nonnegative weights. The following table is taken from Schrijver (2004), with some corrections and additions.A green background indicates an asymptotically best bound in the table; L is the ....

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### Morphological analysis (problem-solving) - Wikipedia.

Overview. General morphology was developed by Fritz Zwicky, the Bulgarian-born, Swiss-national astrophysicist based at the California Institute of Technology.Among others, Zwicky applied morphological analysis (MA) to astronomical studies and jet and rocket propulsion systems. As a problem-structuring and problem-solving technique, MA was designed for multi-dimensional, ....

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### Economic calculation problem - Wikipedia.

The economic calculation problem (sometimes abbreviated ECP) is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production. It was first proposed by Ludwig von Mises in his 1920 article " Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth " and later expanded upon by Friedrich Hayek ..

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### Knapsack problem - Wikipedia.

The knapsack problem is a problem in combinatorial optimization: Given a set of items, each with a weight and a value, determine the number of each item to include in a collection so that the total weight is less than or equal to a given limit and the total value is as large as possible.It derives its name from the problem faced by someone who is constrained by a fixed-size ....

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### Boolean satisfiability problem - Wikipedia.

In logic and computer science, the Boolean satisfiability problem (sometimes called propositional satisfiability problem and abbreviated SATISFIABILITY, SAT or B-SAT) is the problem of determining if there exists an interpretation that satisfies a given Boolean formula.In other words, it asks whether the variables of a given Boolean formula can be consistently ....

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### Eight disciplines problem solving - Wikipedia.

Eight disciplines problem solving (8D) is a method developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals. Focused on product and process improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems. It establishes a permanent corrective action based on statistical analysis of ....

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### Two-body problem - Wikipedia.

Solving the classical two-body problem for an electron orbiting an atomic nucleus is misleading and does not produce many useful insights. Reduction to two independent, one-body problems [ edit ] This section duplicates the scope of other articles , specifically Classical central-force problem#Relation to the classical two-body problem ..

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### Working memory - Wikipedia.

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that can hold information temporarily. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-term memory, but some theorists consider the two forms of memory distinct, assuming that working memory allows for ....

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### Solution of triangles - Wikipedia.

The standard method of solving the problem is to use fundamental relations. Law of cosines = + = + = + Law of sines = = Sum of angles + + = Law of tangents + = [()] [(+)]. There are other (sometimes practically useful) universal relations: the law of cotangents and Mollweide's formula.. Notes. To find an unknown angle, the law of cosines is safer than the law of ....

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### Technical support - Wikipedia.

Technical support (abbreviated as tech support) is a service provided by companies to advise and assist registered users with issues concerning their technical products. Traditionally done on the phone, technical support can now be conducted online or through chat. At present, most large and mid-size companies have outsourced their tech support operations..

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### Two-body problem in general relativity - Wikipedia.

The two-body problem in general relativity is the determination of the motion and gravitational field of two bodies as described by the field equations of general relativity.Solving the Kepler problem is essential to calculate the bending of light by gravity and the motion of a planet orbiting its sun. Solutions are also used to describe the motion of binary stars around each other, and ....

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### Spherical cow - Wikipedia.

The concept is familiar enough that the phrase is sometimes used as shorthand for the entire issue of proper modeling. For example, Consider a Spherical Cow is a 1988 book about problem solving using simplified models. Even without the concept of scientific modeling the joke is sufficiently well known to be indirectly referenced..

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### Duality (optimization) - Wikipedia.

In mathematical optimization theory, duality or the duality principle is the principle that optimization problems may be viewed from either of two perspectives, the primal problem or the dual problem.If the primal is a minimization problem then the dual is a maximization problem (and vice-versa). Any feasible solution to the primal (minimization) problem is at least as large as ....

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### Circleâ€“ellipse problem - Wikipedia.

The circle-ellipse problem in software development (sometimes called the square-rectangle problem) illustrates several pitfalls which can arise when using subtype polymorphism in object modelling.The issues are most commonly encountered when using object-oriented programming (OOP). By definition, this problem is a violation of the Liskov substitution principle, one of the ....

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### AI box - Wikipedia.

An AI box is a hypothetical isolated computer hardware system where a possibly dangerous artificial intelligence, or AI, is kept constrained in a "virtual prison" as a solution to the AI control problem and not allowed to directly manipulate events in the external world. Such a box would be restricted to minimalist communication channels. However, even if the box is well-designed, a ....

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### Brute-force search - Wikipedia.

In computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a very general problem-solving technique and algorithmic paradigm that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement.. A brute-force algorithm that finds the divisors of a ....

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### Bicycle - Wikipedia.

Etymology. The word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysees and Bois de Boulogne". The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle, possibly a carriage. The design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words ....

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### Bloom's 2 sigma problem - Wikipedia.

Bloom's 2 sigma problem refers to an educational phenomenon and associated problem observed by educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom and initially reported in 1984 in the journal Educational Researcher. Bloom found that the average student tutored one-to-one using mastery learning techniques performed two standard deviations better than students educated in a ....

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