Self Refuting Idea Wikipedia

Self-refuting idea - Wikipedia.

A self-refuting idea or self-defeating idea is an idea or statement whose falsehood is a logical consequence of the act or situation of holding them to be true. Many ideas are called self-refuting by their detractors, and such accusations are therefore almost always controversial, with defenders stating that the idea is being misunderstood or that the argument is invalid..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-refuting_idea.

Eduard Bernstein - Wikipedia.

Bernstein was principally concerned with refuting Karl Marx's predictions about the imminent and inevitable demise of capitalism and Marx's consequent laissez-faire policy which opposed ameliorative social interventions before the demise. Bernstein indicated simple facts, which he considered to be evidence that Marx's predictions were not being ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eduard_Bernstein.

Falsifiability - Wikipedia.

Falsifiability is a standard of evaluation of scientific theories and hypotheses that was introduced by the philosopher of science Karl Popper in his book The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934). He proposed it as the cornerstone of a solution to both the problem of induction and the problem of demarcation.A theory or hypothesis is falsifiable (or refutable) if it can be logically ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falsifiability.

Critique of Pure Reason - Wikipedia.

The Critique of Pure Reason (German: Kritik der reinen Vernunft; 1781; second edition 1787) is a book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, in which the author seeks to determine the limits and scope of metaphysics.Also referred to as Kant's "First Critique", it was followed by his Critique of Practical Reason (1788) and Critique of Judgment (1790)..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason.

Self-evidence - Wikipedia.

In epistemology (theory of knowledge), a self-evident proposition is a proposition that is known to be true by understanding its meaning without proof, [citation needed] and/or by ordinary human reason.. Some epistemologists deny that any proposition can be self-evident. For most others, one's belief that oneself is conscious is offered as an example of self-evidence..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-evidence.

John Scotus Eriugena - Wikipedia.

John Scotus Eriugena or Johannes Scotus Erigena or John the Scot (c. 800 - c. 877) or John the Irish Born was an Irish Catholic Neoplatonist philosopher, theologian and poet of the Early Middle Ages. Bertrand Russell dubbed him "the most astonishing person of the ninth century".The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states he "is the most significant Irish intellectual of the ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Scotus_Eriugena.

摩菲定理 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书.

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https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%91%A9%E8%8F%B2%E5%AE%9A%E7%90%86.

Essentialism - Wikipedia.

Essentialism is the view that objects have a set of attributes that are necessary to their identity. In early Western thought, Plato's idealism held that all things have such an "essence"--an "idea" or "form".In Categories, Aristotle similarly proposed that all objects have a substance that, as George Lakoff put it, "make the thing what it is, and without which it would be not that kind of ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essentialism.

Socialism - Wikipedia.

A self-managed, decentralised economy is based on autonomous self-regulating economic units and a decentralised mechanism of resource allocation and decision-making. ... The idea of socialism from above is much more frequently discussed in elite circles than socialism from below--even if that is the Marxist ideal--because it is more practical ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism.

Adverse effect - Wikipedia.

Adverse effects can occur as a collateral or side effect of many interventions, but they are particularly important in pharmacology, due to its wider, and sometimes uncontrollable, use by way of self-medication.Thus, responsible drug use becomes an important issue here. Adverse effects, like therapeutic effects of drugs, are a function of dosage or drug levels at the target ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adverse_effect.

Goodhart's law - Wikipedia.

Goodhart's law is an adage often stated as, "When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure". It is named after British economist Charles Goodhart, who is credited with expressing the core idea of the adage in a 1975 article on monetary policy in the United Kingdom:. Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goodhart%27s_law.

Hawthorne effect - Wikipedia.

The Hawthorne effect is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. The effect was discovered in the context of research conducted at the Hawthorne Western Electric plant; however, some scholars feel the descriptions are apocryphal.. The original research involved workers who made electrical ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawthorne_effect.

Property is theft! - Wikipedia.

Karl Marx, although initially favourable to Proudhon's work, later criticised, among other things, the expression "property is theft" as self-refuting and unnecessarily confusing, writing that " 'theft' as a forcible violation of property presupposes the existence of property" and condemning Proudhon for entangling himself in "all sorts of ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_is_theft!.

Salafi movement - Wikipedia.

The Salafi movement or Salafism (Arabic: ?????, romanized: Salafiyya) is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century. The name refers to advocacy of a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (), the first three generations of Muslims, who are believed to exemplify the pure form of Islam..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi_movement.

Osborne effect - Wikipedia.

The Osborne effect is a social phenomenon of customers canceling or deferring orders for the current, soon-to-be-obsolete product as an unexpected drawback of a company's announcing a future product prematurely. It is an example of cannibalization.. The term alludes to the Osborne Computer Corporation, whose second product did not become available until more than a year ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osborne_effect.

Scientism - Wikipedia.

Scientism is the opinion that science and the scientific method are the best or only way to render truth about the world and reality.. While the term was defined originally to mean "methods and attitudes typical of or attributed to natural scientists", some scholars (and subsequently many others) also adopted it as a pejorative term with the meaning "an exaggerated trust in the ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientism.

Mahayana - Wikipedia.

Mahayana (/ ? m ?: h ? ' j ?: n ? /; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, philosophies, and practices.Mahayana Buddhism developed in India (c. 1st century BCE onwards) and is considered one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada). Mahayana accepts the main scriptures and teachings of early ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayana.

Wikipedia - Wikipedia.

Wikipedia (/ ? w I k I ' p i: d i ? / wik-ih-PEE-dee-? or / ? w I k i-/ wik-ee-) is a multilingual free online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through open collaboration and a wiki-based editing system.Its editors are known as Wikipedians.Wikipedia is the largest and most-read reference work in history. It is consistently one of the 10 most popular ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia.

Thought - Wikipedia.

It is controversial since there is a lot of disagreement concerning the epistemic status of thought experiments, i.e. how reliable they are as evidence supporting or refuting a theory. [140] [144] [143] [142] Central to the rejection of this usage is the fact that they pretend to be a source of knowledge without the need to leave one's armchair ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought.

Conspiracy theory - Wikipedia.

A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by sinister and powerful groups, often political in motivation, when other explanations are more probable. The term has a negative connotation, implying that the appeal to a conspiracy is based on prejudice or insufficient evidence. A conspiracy theory is not the same as a conspiracy; ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conspiracy_theory.

Al-Ghazali - Wikipedia.

Life. The believed date of al-Ghazali's birth, as given by Ibn al-Jawzi, is AH 450 (1058/9). Modern estimates place it at AH 448 (1056/7), on the basis of certain statements in al-Ghazali's correspondence and autobiography. He was a Muslim scholar, law specialist, rationalist, and spiritualist of Persian descent. He was born in Tabaran, a town in the district of Tus, Khorasan ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali.

Madhyamaka - Wikipedia.

Etymology. Madhya is a Sanskrit word meaning "middle". It is cognate with Latin med-iu-s and English mid.The -ma suffix is a superlative, giving madhyama the meaning of "mid-most" or "medium". The -ka suffix is used to form adjectives, thus madhyamaka means "middling". The -ika suffix is used to form possessives, with a collective sense, thus madhyamika mean "belonging ....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhyamaka.