Turing Machines Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

Turing Machines (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Sep 24, 2018 . Turing machines, first described by Alan Turing in Turing 1936-7, are simple abstract computational devices intended to help investigate the extent and limitations of what can be computed. Turing's 'automatic machines', as he termed them in 1936, were specifically devised for the computing of real numbers. ... Stanford Encyclopedia of ....


Mental Representation - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Mar 30, 2000 . The notion of a "mental representation" is, arguably, in the first instance a theoretical construct of cognitive science. As such, it is a basic concept of the Computational Theory of Mind, according to which cognitive states and processes are constituted by the occurrence, transformation and storage (in the mind/brain) of information-bearing structures ....


Philosophy of Technology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Feb 20, 2009 . Information is to be found in the entries on Turing machines, the Church-Turing thesis, computability and complexity, the Turing test, the Chinese room argument, the computational theory of mind, functionalism, multiple realizability, and the philosophy of computer science. 3. Ethical and Social Aspects of Technology.


The Turing Test - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Apr 09, 2003 . The phrase "The Turing Test" is most properly used to refer to a proposal made by Turing (1950) as a way of dealing with the question whether machines can think. According to Turing, the question whether machines can think is itself "too meaningless" to ....


Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Nov 11, 2013 . These proposals, though, all turned out to be equivalent. Turing's careful conceptual analysis which used fictional and abstract computing machines (nowadays conventionally called "Turing machines"; see the entry on Turing machines) was particularly important, as Godel himself emphasized (see, e.g., Godel 1963). The equation of the ....


Artificial Intelligence - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Jul 12, 2018 . Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field devoted to building artificial animals (or at least artificial creatures that - in suitable contexts - appear to be animals) and, for many, artificial persons (or at least artificial creatures that - in suitable contexts - appear to be persons). [] Such goals immediately ensure that AI is a discipline of considerable interest to many ....


Table of Contents - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

imitation game -- see Turing test; immigration (Christopher Heath Wellman) immortality -- see afterlife; immunology, philosophy of (Bartlomiej Swiatczak and Alfred I. Tauber) immutability (Brian Leftow) impartiality (Troy Jollimore) implicature (Wayne Davis) optimality theoretic and game theoretic approaches (Robert van Rooij and Michael Franke).


Philosophy of artificial intelligence - Wikipedia.

Alan Turing reduced the problem of defining intelligence to a simple question about conversation. He suggests that: if a machine can answer any question put to it, using the same words that an ordinary person would, then we may call that machine intelligent. A modern version of his experimental design would use an online chat room, where one of the participants is a real ....


Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (Stanford Encyclopedia ....

Apr 30, 2020 . Other Internet Resources References. AI HLEG, 2019, "High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence: Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI", European Commission, accessed: 9 April 2019. Amodei, Dario and Danny Hernandez, 2018, "AI and Compute", OpenAI Blog, 16 July 2018. Aneesh, A., 2002, Technological Modes of Governance: Beyond Private and Public ....


The Philosophy of Computer Science - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Aug 20, 2013 . The philosophy of computer science is concerned with the ontological and methodological issues arising from within the academic discipline of computer science, and from the practice of software development and its commercial and industrial deployment..


Turing test - Wikipedia.

The Turing test, originally called the imitation game by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human. Turing proposed that a human evaluator would judge natural language conversations between a human and a machine designed to generate human-like responses..


Turing machine - Wikipedia.

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation describing an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite the model's simplicity, it is capable of implementing any computer algorithm.. The machine operates on an infinite memory tape divided into discrete cells, each of which can hold a single symbol drawn ....


The Chinese Room Argument - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Mar 19, 2004 . Turing's 1938 Princeton thesis described such machines ("O-machines"). O-machines are machines that include functions of natural numbers that are not Turing-machine computable. If the brain is such a machine, then, says Sprevak,: "There is no possibility of Searle's Chinese Room Argument being successfully deployed against the ....


History of computing hardware - Wikipedia.

The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the ....


René Descartes - Wikipedia.

Rene Descartes (/ d eI ' k ?:r t / or UK: / ' d eI k ?:r t /; French: [??ne deka?t] (); Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; 31 March 1596 - 11 February 1650: 58 ) was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and lay Catholic who invented analytic geometry, linking the previously separate fields of geometry and algebra.He spent a large portion of his working life in the Dutch ....


Identity Theory | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Identity Theory. Identity theory is a family of views on the relationship between mind and body. Type Identity theories hold that at least some types (or kinds, or classes) of mental states are, as a matter of contingent fact, literally identical with some types (or kinds, or classes) of brain states..


Reduced instruction set computer - Wikipedia.

In computer engineering, a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) is a computer designed to simplify the individual instructions given to the computer to accomplish taskspared to the instructions given to a complex instruction set computer (CISC), a RISC computer might require more instructions (more code) in order to accomplish a task because the individual ....


Alan Turing - Wikipedia.

Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ ' tj ??r I n /; 23 June 1912 - 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which ....


Herbert A. Simon - Wikipedia.

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 - February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist, with a Ph.D. in political science, whose work also influenced the fields of computer science, economics, and cognitive psychology.His primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and he is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing"..


John Searle - Wikipedia.

John Rogers Searle (/ s ?:r l /; born July 31, 1932) is an American philosopher widely noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and social philosophy.He began teaching at UC Berkeley in 1959, and was Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind and Language and Professor of the Graduate School at the University of ....


Computer - Wikipedia.

A computer is a digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically.Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs.These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a "complete" computer that includes the hardware, ....


Intentionality - Wikipedia.

Intentionality is the power of minds to be about something: to represent or to stand for things, properties and states of affairs. Intentionality is primarily ascribed to mental states, like perceptions, beliefs or desires, which is why it has been regarded as the characteristic mark of the mental by many philosophers. A central issue for theories of intentionality has been the ....


Mechanism (philosophy) - Wikipedia.

Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are similar to complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.. The doctrine of mechanism in philosophy comes in two different flavors. They are both doctrines of metaphysics, but they are different in scope and ambitions: the first is a global doctrine about ....


Immortality | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Immortality. Immortality is the indefinite continuation of a person's existence, even after death. In common parlance, immortality is virtually indistinguishable from afterlife, but philosophically speaking, they are not identical..


Functional programming - Wikipedia.

History. The lambda calculus, developed in the 1930s by Alonzo Church, is a formal system of computation built from function application.In 1937 Alan Turing proved that the lambda calculus and Turing machines are equivalent models of computation, showing that the lambda calculus is Turing complete.Lambda calculus forms the basis of all functional programming languages..


Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Wikipedia.

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (1 July 1646 [O.S. 21 June] - 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat.He is one of the most prominent figures in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics.He wrote works on philosophy, theology, ethics, politics, law, history and philology..


Teste de Turing – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

Aqui Descartes observa que automatos sao capazes de responder a interacoes com humanos, mas argumenta que automatos nao podem responder apropriadamente coisas ditas em sua presenca do modo que qualquer humano pode. Descartes, assim, prefigura o Teste de Turing quando identifica a insuficiencia de respostas linguisticas apropriadas como as que separam ....


Computationnalisme — Wikipédia.

Le computationnalisme est une theorie fonctionnaliste en philosophie de l'esprit qui, pour des raisons methodologiques, concoit l'esprit comme un systeme de traitement de l'information et compare la pensee a un calcul (en anglais, computation [1]) et, plus precisement, a l'application d'un systeme de regles.Par computationnalisme, on entend la theorie developpee en particulier ....


The Stanford Natural Language Processing Group.

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